Dr. Boyd’s work is focused on finding pathways for more sustainable production in the corporate environment. She led product carbon footprinting for new product introductions at Apple and managed the company’s external initiative to drive carbon reductions in semiconductor fabrication. Prior to this, Dr. Boyd served as a product sustainability domain expert for the electronic sector at thinkstep (now Sphera), where she led projects in ICT, consumer goods, construction, aerospace, and electrical utilities clients in the US and in Europe. Her book Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors, first published by Springer in 2011, has served as a definitive source of environmental impact data for integrated circuit manufacturing. She holds a Ph.D. and M.S. in mechanical engineering from University of California, Berkeley, and a B.S. from Stanford University.